Can online learning be compared to face-to-face learning?

Effectiveness is difficult to define

A final problem is the use of the words “effectiveness” or “efficiency.” What are we measuring?

Some studies evaluate effectiveness based on learning success, that is, achievement of learning goals in a given time (grades and test scores), information retention, students' attitudes toward learning, or even their satisfaction.

But skills like critical thinking or collaboration are difficult to quantify.

Efficiency, in turn, aims to measure the benefits of a method against the public expenditure incurred. For example, do online courses (which are less expensive to set up) achieve the same or better results than in-person courses?

Inappropriate question?

Robert M. Bernard, quoted above, questions the relevance of comparing face-to-face and distance learning. He had already observed in 2004 that both require different teaching methods, different qualifications and different assessments.

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